Each year the mean grades of the students whose chosen a music course in their curriculum were higher than students who did not choose music as an optional course. In the journal Behavioral Brain Research by Leonid Perlovsky of Harvard University, he described a study of 180 students in Quebec. Based on the students excellence in elementary school they were all selected for an International Baccalaureate Program meaning they were “among the top grade level of their school.” During the first two years of secondary school, music education was compulsory. For the final three years, music courses were optional; the students had their choice of music, drama or painting/sculpture classes. Researchers recorded the student's’ academic performance in their full range classes which included science, math, history and foreign languages. The results for the kids’ final three years of schooling were quite striking.